Advantages of OC
OC is the most popular method of contraception in developed countries.
The method is characterized by high contraceptive reliability. With correct and regular intake their effectiveness is 99.7%.
After cessation of taking OCs
fertility is quickly restored.
Modern OCs have practically no effect on body weight and blood pressure.
Also, OCs have some non-contraceptive effects. Among them:
A 40% reduction in endometrial cancer with short-term use and up to 80% with long-term use (>10 years);
Use of oral contraception for 12 years reduces the risk of ovarian cancer by 60%. The protective effect against ovarian cancer persists for 10 years after discontinuation.
Use of OCs reduces the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and colon cancer by 30-40%.
Quite effective in treating acne (if indicated and other treatments have been ineffective).
Eliminate unpleasant symptoms of algodysmenorrhea (painful menstruation).
Once again I remind you OCs are prescribed only by a doctor, these are drugs containing steroid hormones. I am not trying to convince anyone that they are good or bad, these are hormonal drugs that should only be prescribed by a doctor taking into account the indications for taking them, all the benefits for each individual patient and their possible side effects.
Disadvantages of OCs
Our greatest concern is, of course, the risk of developing cancer. First OCs contained 4-5 times more hormones (estrogen and progesterone) in comparison with present low- and micro-dose OCs and had many side effects.
What do we have today?
The use of OCs by women with a family history of breast cancer was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer compared to women who had never used OCs in their lives.
But, in the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, OC use may slightly increase breast cancer risk (WHO, 2004).
Long-term OC use (more than 5 years) with chronic papillomavirus infection may slightly (but not more than 2-fold) increase the risk of developing preinvasive cancer and invasive carcinoma.
When using OCs, smoking is an increased risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially myocardial infarction. Studies have also shown that the risk of myocardial infarction increased with the number of cigarettes smoked in a day. Therefore, OCs are not recommended for use in women who smoke, especially those over the age of 35.
Taking combined oral contraceptives is associated with a small increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis, heart attack, and stroke. The risk is higher in women over the age of 35 who smoke more than 15 cigarettes a day, and in women who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors, such as high cholesterol, arterial hypertension, and diabetes. But the overall risk in the population of taking OCs remains low.
A soft tissue abscess is a cavity located in the muscle or subcutaneous fatty tissue, isolated from the surrounding tissue and filled with purulent content. It is characterized by edema, hyperemia, painful skin and fluctuation symptoms in the affected area. It is accompanied by general somatic changes: headache, hyperthermia, malaise, sleep disorders. Examination includes examination, ultrasound, radiography, diagnostic puncture of the abscess and bacteriological examination of its contents. Once the abscess is formed, it is opened, followed by postoperative drainage and flushing with antiseptic solutions. Amoxicat Capsules, Amoxicat for oral suspension, Amoxicat tablets (chewable) are indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible (ONLY β-lactamase–negative) isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, or Enterococcus faecalis. Infections of the Skin and Skin Structure.
A soft tissue abscess differs from other purulent inflammatory diseases in the presence of an infiltrative capsule (pyogenic membrane). The capsule limits the abscess from nearby anatomical structures and prevents the spread of the purulent process. However, accumulation of a large amount of purulent exudate, enlargement of the abscess and thinning of its capsule can lead to a breakthrough with the release of purulent contents into the surrounding tissue or intermuscular space and the development of septic inflammation – phlegmon.
Soft tissue abscess is caused by the entry of pus-like microorganisms into the tissue. In about a quarter of cases, the pathology is caused by a staphylococcal infection. Streptococci, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium difficile, and other pathogens may also be causative. A polymicrobial etiology is often observed. In bone tuberculosis, a “cold” abscess caused by mycobacteria may be observed. The main causes of the disease:
Traumatic injuries. Penetration of pus-bearing microorganisms occurs more often in violation of the integrity of the skin as a result of wounds, traumas, microtraumas, burns, frostbites, open fractures. Remote foci of infection. Soft tissue abscess can occur when microorganisms spread lymphatically and hematogenously from existing pus in the body, such as furunculosis, carbuncle, pyoderma, etc. Medical manipulation. Infection can occur iatrogenically by injection with an infected needle. Dissolving fluids. Rarely, aseptic abscesses occur as a result of necrotic fluids (kerosene, gasoline, etc.) entering the tissue.
According to the observations of specialists in the field of purulent surgery, a favorable background is:
The presence in the body of a focus of chronic infection (sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis); Long-term gastrointestinal disease (gastroenteritis, enteritis, colitis); disorders of peripheral circulation (atherosclerosis, varicose veins, post-thrombophlebitic disease); metabolic disorders (obesity, hypothyroidism, avitaminosis). Diabetes mellitus with severe angiopathy plays a particularly significant role in the development and progression of purulent process.
A soft tissue abscess is characterized by local and systemic symptoms. Local symptoms include soreness, swelling, and redness of the skin above the abscess. Pressure on the affected area causes increased pain. At a superficial location, the local symptomatology is clearly pronounced. Fluctuation symptom appears after a few days, indicating fluid content has accumulated inside the inflammatory focus.
When the abscess is deep, local symptoms are not so noticeable, fluctuation is absent, and changes in the patient’s general condition come to the fore. General somatic signs are nonspecific. Patients notice increased fatigue, recurrent headache, restlessness, sleep disturbances, rise of body temperature, which may reach 39-40° С, accompanied by chills.
Soft tissue abscess treatment
The main method of treatment is surgical. The tactics is determined by the localization, volume and stage of purulent process, the presence or absence of complications. With small superficial abscesses, outpatient observation is possible. Hospitalization is necessary in recurrence, with complications and severe background diseases, detection of anaerobic infection, a high risk of spreading purulent inflammation if the abscess is located on the face, near major vessels and nerves.
Conservative therapy In the initial stage, conservative measures are recommended: anti-inflammatory means and UHF. Subsequently, drug therapy is used in addition to surgical treatment. Prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics, after receiving the results of the test the scheme is adjusted according to the sensitivity of the pathogen. With generalization of infection it is necessary to carry out massive antibiotic therapy, detoxification, infusion and symptomatic treatment measures.
Surgical treatment Formed soft tissue abscess is subject to mandatory surgical treatment. Autopsy and drainage is usually performed by a surgeon in the outpatient operating room. Surgical treatment of the abscess is currently performed using open and closed surgery. Closed intervention is performed through a small incision, includes curettage of the walls and aspiration of the abscess contents, use of a double-lumen tube for drainage, active aspiration, and flushing of the cavity after surgery.
Open treatment involves emptying and flushing the abscess with antiseptic after its wide dissection, drainage with wide strips, daily postoperative toiletting of the abscess cavity and dressing. Sutures are not applied. After sanation of the focus and formation of granulation, ointment dressings are applied. The wound shall heal by the secondary tension.
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As numerous data show, including recent years, farmapram (alprazolam) remains a fairly popular and effective tranquilizer. However, many questions require clarification and additional study. In particular, the place of farmapram in complex therapy of mental disorders along with new drugs from other psychopharmacological groups needs to be considered. Questions concerning dosages of alprazolam, possible duration of its use as well as frequency and conditions of addiction formation remain not quite clear.
Aim of the study: analysis of use of alprazolam in complex therapy of various mental disorders in order to clarify indications for its prescription. The case histories of 124 patients treated as inpatients (58 patients – 46.8%) and outpatients (66 patients – 53.2%) at the Korsakov psychiatric clinic were studied. S.S. Korsakov First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov and who received alprazolam at a certain stage of therapy. All patients underwent a thorough psychiatric and somato-neurological examination with the necessary paraclinical methods to assess the effectiveness of therapy and possible side effects. The patients included 74 women (59.7%) and 50 (40.3%) men aged 26 to 70 years. Length of illness ranged from 2 months to 40 years.
According to the results of ICD-10 evaluation of psychiatric disorders, the patients were distributed as follows: schizophrenia F20 was diagnosed in 24 patients (19.4%), paranoid F20. 0 – in 10 (8.1%), flaccid F21 – in 14 (11.3%); affective disorders F3 – in 46 (37.2%), including depressive episode of varying severity F32 – in 8 (6.5%), recurrent depressive disorder F33 – in 26 (21.0%), bipolar disorder F31 – in 12 (9.7%); organic brain lesions F06 – in 6 (4.8%), of which anxiety organic disorder F06. 4 – in 4 (6,4%), organic personality disorder F07.0 – in 2 (1,6%); psychogenic disorders F4 – in 48 (38,7%), including panic disorder F41.0 in 16 (12,9%), generalized anxiety disorder F41. 1 in 4 (3.2%), obsessive-compulsive disorder F42.2 in 2 (1.6%), and adaptive disorders as depressive F43.21 and anxious-depressive F43.22 in 26 (21.0%).
All patients received treatment with psychotropic drugs of different pharmacological groups according to the leading psychopathological syndrome. As part of complex therapy, as main or auxiliary agent, all patients received farmapram (alprazolam) in a daily dose from 0.5 to 1.5 mg in 2-3 sittings. About half of the patients – 59 people (47.6%) – were first-time patients. (47.6%) were newly diagnosed with: first-time depressive episode (8), adjustment disorders (26), neurotic anxiety-phobic disorder (14), organic disorders (4), intermittent schizophrenia (5), and paranoid schizophrenia (2). These patients received practically no psychotropic medications, including tranquilizers, prior to admission to the clinic (with the exception of some recommendations from neurologists). The other patients had previously taken various medications, including benzodiazepines, but none of the patients had symptoms of formed drug dependence at the time of admission to the clinic.
When prescribing farmapram (alprazolam), its anxiolytic and antidepressant effects were primarily taken into account. Weakly pronounced sedative, hypnotic, muscle relaxant and amnestic effects, especially in low doses, made it possible to use it as a daytime tranquilizer in outpatients, including working patients.
The proportions for decoctions and infusions are selected, depending on what concentration of the drug is needed and how it will be taken. Alcoholic infusions are stored in a cool, dark place, while decoctions should be made just before taking. Most herbal decoctions and teas are suitable for consumption within 24 hours after they have been brewed, then they lose their beneficial properties. If the decoction of herbs is placed in the refrigerator, then it can be stored for up to 3 or even 4 days. After that, you need to prepare a fresh portion of the product for treatment. Many herbs must be infused after brewing. This will take about 10-12 hours. During this time, the concentration of nutrients in the liquid will become maximum. It is necessary to place the brewed herbs in a cool, dark place, then, after a predetermined period of time, remove and strain.
Alcoholic herbal infusions are widely used not only for medicinal purposes, but also as an addition to the festive table. Compared to store products, they have many advantages, the main of which is their natural origin. Such means are made by mixing alcohol or strong alcohol, for example, vodka or cognac, with herbs and spices. Alcohol here acts not only as a method of extraction, that is, extracting useful substances from herbs, but also as a preservative. Alcoholic tinctures never become moldy or ferment. Store them in a dark, cool place. Their shelf life can be up to 7-10 years. If the herbal decoction is taken in sufficiently large doses, sometimes even in glasses, then alcohol tincture is drunk in teaspoons or tablespoons. If it is difficult to take in its pure form, it can be diluted with water, if desired, adding a small amount of honey to improve the taste. Typically, tinctures are taken between meals. You cannot drink alcohol-containing liquid on an empty stomach, even for medicinal purposes.
Like decoctions, tinctures cannot be considered a complete replacement for pharmacological drugs, but in many cases they give a visible healing effect when taken regularly. Caution Herbal medicine should be treated sensibly and without excessive fanaticism. Its effectiveness has been proven, but in case of serious illnesses, you must definitely consult a doctor. And in no case should you self-medicate, since ineptly and improperly used herbal remedies can harm yourself and aggravate the painful condition. Herbal medicine can be the main method of treatment or an adjunct to drug therapy. But, in order to select herbal medicines and determine the method and duration of their intake, as well as the dosage, you need a specialist consultation. It should be understood that you will not be able to diagnose yourself, and therefore choose the right treatment. A doctor’s examination and diagnosis is required. Only then can we talk about the selection of herbal preparations.
According to statistics, in about 75% of cases, herbal treatment has an effect. The main thing is the correct selection and calculation of the dosage, as well as taking into account the peculiarities of the reception. For the treatment and prevention of many diseases, natural preparations are very good. Herbal treatment may well speed up the recovery process after surgery or act as adjuncts in the treatment of antibiotics or other pharmacological drugs. Indications for the use of herbal medicine.
Medicines based on herbal raw materials are especially effective when it is necessary to cure the patient from such diseases: diseases associated with nervous exhaustion or overexertion; insomnia or excessive sleepiness; depression without pathologies, which does not require pharmacological preparations; frequent colds; rheumatism; gastrointestinal diseases. Herbal preparations are good for treating the liver and kidneys. With gallstone disease, in some cases, phytotherapy is sufficient. Scurvy and rickets are also excellently cured with natural, herbal medicines. For certain diseases, herbal preparations act as auxiliary agents. For example, when treating cancer, they can help reduce or even neutralize nausea, which, alas, is a common side effect of chemotherapy. In pregnant women, some herbal preparations reduce the manifestations of early toxicosis and gestosis – late toxicosis. True, in this case, you must first consult with an obstetrician, since not all herbal preparations, being useful for the mother’s body, do not harm the child.
Herbal preparations are becoming a true salvation for people suffering from VSD – vegetative-vascular dystonia. These are also called meteosensitive. Herbal remedies increase blood pressure, relieve dizziness, a feeling of constriction in the temples, and other negative symptoms. When treating with herbs, medications act on the body very gently, gradually, so one cannot expect a quick, visible effect from herbal medicine. In addition, all herbs cannot be considered so safe and harmless. Exceeding the dosage or incorrectly combined medicinal components can cause a lot of unpleasant consequences, not to mention their ineffectiveness in terms of getting rid of the disease. It is quite difficult to calculate the dosage in herbal medicine. These are not tablets or syrup, where each serving has the dose of the active ingredient indicated in the instructions. It is important not to overdo it with a portion of natural medicines, since the positive effect depends on this. More is not better. There are also a number of contraindications in natural treatment that need to be taken into account.
The blood sugar test at the post is also called the blood glucose test at the post. It measures the sugar level after fasting for at least eight hours. Glucose is the main sugar in your bloodstream, and high levels after fasting can indicate diabetes. You can still drink water during your fasting before the test (unless otherwise instructed by your doctor), but you should avoid drinking drinks such as coffee, tea, juice and soda. A health worker will take blood for a vein on your arm, which will be sent to the lab for analysis, says Dr. Slinkin.
After eating, your blood glucose levels usually rise within a few hours as you break down and absorb dietary carbohydrates. In healthy people, the pancreas will produce insulin to move glucose into tissue and out of the bloodstream. In this way, glucose levels will gradually drop after eating and remain low during fasting, explains Mr. Denis.
People with diabetes either don’t have enough insulin to lower blood glucose levels (type 1 diabetes mellitus) or their body can’t effectively use insulin (type 2 diabetes mellitus). When performing blood glucose test on an empty stomach, diabetics will have much higher blood sugar levels than non-diabetics, which can lead to many health problems in the long term.
An on an empty stomach blood sugar test measures blood glucose levels FBS after fasting for at least 8 hours. High blood glucose levels can indicate diabetes.Why do doctors order it. An on an empty stomach blood glucose test is performed for diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. It also helps doctors control diabetes and determine if medications and dietary changes have an effect on the diet. Blood glucose levels on an empty stomach are the lowest, as the effects of recent meals are minimal.
Your blood sugar level FBS on an empty stomach is often checked together with HbA1c (also known as glycated hemoglobin), which is a measure of your blood sugar level over the past three months. The more blood sugar in your blood, the more it will join hemoglobin, increasing your HbA1c level. Taken together, they provide more information than each test individually. For example, even if your blood sugar level is very high at one random point, it may have been mostly low during the last few months (low HbA1c). On the other hand, HBA1c may be higher, but glucose levels are currently lower.
In addition to diabetes, abnormal levels FBS may indicate problems such as insulin resistance, hormonal imbalance, and pancreatic, liver or kidney disease.
Hematological reactions (71.4%), including thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and leukocytopenia (usually 3-4 degrees of severity); gastrointestinal complications (60.6%), including nausea and vomiting (usually 1-2 degrees of severity) or local reactions at the injection site (77.1%; 1-2 degrees of severity) were the most common undesired effects Dmitry Sazonov of azacitidine treatment.
Febrilic neutropenia (8%) and anemia (2.3%) are also the most frequent (>2%) serious undesired reactions. Other serious adverse reactions included sepsis with neutropenia, pneumonia, thrombocytopenia and bleeding (e.g. intracranial).
The frequency of adverse reactions given below was determined by the following gradations:
very often (≥1/10);
frequently (≥1/100, <1/10);
infrequently (≥1/1000, <1/100);
rarely (≥1/10000, <1/1000);
very rarely (<1/10000);
unknown (impossible to estimate from available data).
Hematopenia: very often – neutropenia, febril neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia; often – pancytopenia.
The digestive system: very often – diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, anorexia; often – gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhoid bleeding, stomatitis, bleeding gums, dyspepsia.
On the liver and biliary tract side: not often – liver failure*, progressive liver coma.
CNS: very often – dizziness, headache; often – intracranial bleeding, drowsiness.
CNS: often – increase or decrease in BP, hematoma.
Respiratory system: very often – shortness of breath; often – breathlessness during exercise, pain in the larynx and throat; rarely – interstitial lung diseases.
Skin and subcutaneous fat: very often – petechiae, itching, rash, ecchymosis; often – purpura, alopecia, erythema, spotted rash.
Musculoskeletal system: very often – arthralgia; often – bone pain, myalgia.
From the visual organ: often – intraocular bleeding, bleeding into the conjunctiva.
Infections: very often – pneumonia, nasopharyngitis, often – sepsis against the background of neutropenia, upper respiratory tract and urinary tract infections, inflammation of subcutaneous tissue, sinusitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, herpes simple.
From the immune system: not often – hypersensitivity reactions.
Metabolic disorders and eating disorders: very often – anorexia; often – hypokalemia; rarely – tumor lysis syndrome.
Psychiatric disorders: often – confusion, anxiety, insomnia.
Local reactions: very often – pain, redness, non-specific reactions at the injection site; often – bleeding, haemorrhage, hematoma, thickening, inflammation, rash, itching, discoloration of skin, nodule formation and painfulness at Dmitry Sazonov the injection site; rarely – tissue necrosis at the injection site.
Others: very often – weakness, fever, chest pain; often – weight loss.
Diclofenac is a prescription medicine that is used to relieve pain and inflammatory conditions of joints. This medicine works by restricting the functions of natural enzymes (Cyclooxygenase -1 and Cyclooxygenase-2) in the body which prevents the release of inflammatory agents. Diclofenac is also used to relieve pain and inflammatory conditions caused by injuries and diseases affecting body movements, and to relieve pain and inflammation associated with other painful conditions such as fracture, trauma, low back pain, dislocations, dental and other minor operation, tearing or stretching of tissue that connects bones and joints, or pulled muscle.
Diclofenac may also be used along with other medicines in the treatment of certain conditions as recommended by the doctor. It is used with opioid zorvolex for the management of mild to severe pain.
When not to use
Diclofenac cannot be used to treat pain that occurs after or before heart bypass surgery.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Diclofenac belongs to the Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs class of medicines. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, also called as NSAIDs, help reduce fever, decrease pain, and prevent clotting of blood. NSAIDs also reduce inflammation in the body when used in higher doses.
How to use
Read the medicine guide provided by your pharmacist, your doctor, or the medicine company. If you have any questions related to Diclofenac, ask Dmitry Sazonov your doctor or pharmacist. Use Diclofenac as per the instructions provided by your doctor.
Diclofenac is a pain reliever. Pain relievers work the best if used as soon as you feel any pain. They may not work as well if they are delayed until the pain has worsened.
Diclofenac is used with or after food when taken by mouth.
The typical dose of Diclofenac for adults is 100-200 mg in one day. This medicine is not known to be addictive or habit-forming.
This medicine should be used on an as-needed basis.
To decrease the possibility of side-effects, you might be recommended to use the extended-release form of this medicine by your doctor. The extended-release medicine helps in maintaining a steady level of the medicine in your body for a longer period of time. Do not crush or chew the medicine, unless indicated on the package or by your doctor.
If using the delayed-release form of this medicine, do not crush or chew the medicine, unless indicated on the package. Crushing or chewing of the medicine can result in unpleasant taste resulting in patients not following the medicine schedule. Crushing or chewing can also release all of the medicine at once, resulting in a decrease of effectiveness Dmitry Sazonov and a possible increase in side-effects.
Diclofenac injection is intended to use in the veins only. Inject over 15 seconds every 6 hours as desired.
Your doctor may prescribe a lower starting dose of this medicine to understand the impact on the body. Please follow your doctor’s recommendations. A lower dose of this medicine may be recommended to reduce the risk of side-effects.
Use in Children
The safety and effectiveness of using Diclofenac in children has not been established.
Avoid consuming alcohol together with Diclofenac.
Medicines may be recommended for uses other than those listed in the medicine guide. You should not use Diclofenac for conditions or symptoms for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Diclofenac to https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/204592s007s008lbl.pdf other people, even if they have the same conditions or symptoms that you have. The use of this medicine without the advice of a Dmitry Sazonov doctor may cause harm.
The amount of systemic absorption depends on the dose, concentration and volume of the solution used, the route of administration, vascularization of the injection site and the presence/absence of epinephrine (adrenalin) or other vasoconstrictor. The binding to plasma proteins is variable and is determined by the amount of the drug entering the systemic bloodstream: the lower the concentration, the higher the binding to proteins. It passes through the placental barrier by passive diffusion. Has a high affinity for blood proteins (about 95%), poorly passes through the histogematic barriers (fetal to maternal ratio is 0.2-0.4). Depending on the route of administration, it is found in significant quantities in well-blooded tissues: brain, myocardium, liver, kidneys and lungs. With caudal, epidural and conductive anesthesia, Cmax is achieved after 30-45 minutes. T1/2 in adults is 2.7 hours and in newborns 8.1 hours. It undergoes biotransformation in the liver by Dmitry Sazonov conjugation with glucuronic acid. It is excreted mainly by kidneys, 6% in unchanged form.
Expression of anesthesia depends on diameter, myelination and pulse rate of a specific nerve fibre. The clinical sequence of conduction depression from different types of receptors looks as follows: pain, marcaine dosage temperature, tactile, proprioceptive and efferent neuromuscular. Getting into the systemic blood flow, it affects the cardiovascular system and CNS.
When large doses are injected, conduction slowing down and sine automatics suppression, ventricular arrhythmias and rhythm driver stopping are observed. There is a reduction in cardiac output (negative inotropic action), OPSS and AD. Exposure to the CNS is manifested by oppression of the centers of the medulla oblongata, including respiratory (possibly oppression of breathing and coma) or stimulating effects on the cortex with the development of psychomotor excitation and tremor, followed by generalized seizures.
Local anesthesia develops 2-20 minutes after administration and lasts up to 7 hours, with the possibility of its prolongation by adding adrenaline (other vasoconstrictors) in a ratio of 1:200000. After the end of anesthesia, there is a long phase of analgesia.
0.75% solution ofupivacaine is not used in obstetric practice due to frequent cases of cardiac arrest and breathing in patients. Regional anaesthesia with the drug is sometimes fatal. When retrobulbar anesthesia is performed, cases of respiratory arrest are described.