Diarrhea (diarrhea) is frequent, repeated liquid stools. Diarrhea is usually accompanied by pain, rumbling in the abdomen, flatulence, tenesmus. Diarrhea is a symptom of many infectious diseases and inflammatory bowel processes, dysbacteriosis, neurogenic disorders. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disease is important in the prevention of complications. Loss of large amounts of fluid during profuse diarrhea leads to a violation of the water-salt balance and can cause heart and kidney failure. Sometimes it helps against diarrhea: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/hemofer.
Diarrhea is a one-time or frequent defecation with stools of a liquid consistency. It is a symptom which signals a disturbance of the absorption of water and electrolytes in the intestines. The normal amount of stool excreted per day by an adult varies between 100 and 300 grams, depending on the characteristics of the diet (the amount of dietary fiber, poorly digested substances, liquids). If intestinal motility is increased, stools may become more frequent and liquefied, but their quantity remains within the normal range. When the amount of liquid in the stool increases to 60-90%, we speak of diarrhea.
A distinction is made between acute diarrhea (lasting no more than 2-3 weeks) and chronic diarrhea. In addition, the concept of chronic diarrhea includes a tendency to periodically abundant stools (more than 300 grams per day). Patients suffering from impaired absorption of various nutrients tend to be polyfecal: a large quantity of stools containing undigested food remains.
Causes of diarrhea
When there is severe intoxication in the intestine, there is excessive secretion of water with sodium ions into its lumen, which helps to thin the stool. Secretory diarrhea develops in intestinal infections (cholera, enteroviruses), taking some drugs and dietary supplements. Osmolar diarrhea occurs in malabsorption syndrome, insufficient digestion of sugars, excessive consumption of osmotically active substances (laxatives, sorbitol, antacids, etc.). Mechanism of diarrhea in such cases is related to an increase in osmotic pressure in the intestinal lumen and fluid diffusion along the osmotic gradient.
A significant factor contributing to the development of diarrhea is a violation of intestinal motility (hypokinetic and hyperkinetic diarrhea) and, consequently, changes in the rate of transit of intestinal contents. Increased motility is promoted by laxatives, magnesium salts. Violations of motor function (weakening and strengthening of peristalsis) take place in the development of irritable bowel syndrome. It is said to be a functional diarrhea.
Inflammation of the intestinal wall causes an exudation of protein, electrolytes and water into the intestinal lumen through damaged mucosa. Exudative diarrhea accompanies enteritis, enterocolitis of different etiologies, intestinal tuberculosis, and acute intestinal infections (salmonellosis, dysentery). It is not uncommon for this type of diarrhea to have blood or pus in the stool.
Diarrhea may be caused by taking medicines: laxatives, antacids containing magnesium salts, some groups of antibiotics (ampicillin, lincomycin, cephalosporins, clindamycin), antiarrhythmic drugs (quindiline, propranolol), foxglove drugs, potassium salts, artificial sugars (sorbitol, mannitol), cholestyramine, chenodeoxycholic acid, sulfonamides, anticoagulants.