Cognitive therapy (familiarization with the essence of the method)

Cognitive therapy is one of the most common and effective areas of modern psychotherapy. This method is based on the transformation of our inadequate emotions into adequate ones without How does this happen?

Many of our somatic and all psychological disorders are the result of inappropriate negative emotions. Such as depression, anger, fear, shame, guilt, anxiety, jealousy, resentment. Their appearance interrupts our productive activities and impairs our ability to communicate. Unfortunately, such emotions do not pass quickly and torment us for a long time.

In contrast to them, there are adequate emotions, including negative ones, for example: sadness, irritation, concern, chagrin, regret. They do not have a destructive effect on our ability to interact with the outside world, and also do not threaten us with neuroses and psychosomatic diseases. It is worth remembering that emotions are determined by our thoughts. The task of the psychotherapist is to make the patient have rational thoughts with adequate emotions. How to achieve this? It is necessary to identify irrational thoughts, subject them to critical analysis and replace them with rational ones. A psychotherapist will help you fix this with systematic training.

The number of cognitive therapy sessions required is determined by the severity and complexity of the patient’s condition. Classes are held with a frequency of 1 time in 2-3 weeks.

When is cognitive therapy used?

depression (including moderate depression, which was previously curable only in psychiatric hospitals with the use of antidepressants)
anxiety (including panic)
various types of social phobia (stage fright, fear of public speaking, fear of exams)
chemical addictions (including alcoholism and drug addiction)
eating disorders (especially overeating)
intrusive thoughts and actions, intrusive memories after severe stress
chronic pain syndrome
and many other conditions and syndromes.

Cognitive therapy as a method has many advantages. It is a scientifically oriented direction, that is, it has a solid base in the form of the latest achievements in psychology and neurophysiology. The results of treatment can be checked with special tests.

Cognitive therapy has a serious structure of treatment, consisting of sequential steps with feedback from the patient. Within the framework of the treatment process, the relationship between the patient and the therapist is built on the basis of mutual respect. According to many years of research, patients who have been treated with cognitive therapy achieve success even in areas that they previously considered closed to themselves. This means that a lasting effect of the treatment is achieved, which is not only a symptomatic (temporary) improvement. If necessary, cognitive therapy can be carried out in combination with medication.

Cholesterol, analyzes

🤔What is it?
🔸 total cholesterol (TC)
🔸triglycerides (TG)
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol)
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) (often calculated by a formula, but better determined directly)
❓ Who?
With increased cardiovascular risk and all patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Importantly, the increased cardiovascular risk and is not always obvious (slide 1) 💔
According to the lipid ratio, the doctor determines the type of hyperlipidemia and determines the risk of atherosclerosis💔
🤔And if you pass only OHS?
This is an important metric and is used to assess the overall risk of CVD. But it is not enough before starting treatment, therefore, for the initial assessment – not total cholesterol, but LDL cholesterol (if the entire lipid spectrum cannot be estimated)

🔷HS LDL (“bad”) is the main carrier of cholesterol in the blood and the most atherogenic class of lipoproteins. It’s linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease
🔷HDL cholesterol (“good”), one of the risk factors for atherosclerosis
<1 mmol / L in men and <1.2 mmol / L in women is associated with an increased risk
❗️BO there is no reason to believe that very high HDL cholesterol levels protect against atherosclerosis. That is, there is no point in trying to “increase” HDL cholesterol!
🔷 Elevated TGs are an important marker of CVD risk, but their association is significantly weaker
TGs carry additional information about the degree of risk

🚫What does not apply?
Cholesterol not associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), apoproteins (B, AI, CIII) and C-reactive protein, which were used earlier, since 2017 in Russia are not recommended for use
❗️ The atherogenic index (coefficient of atherogenicity) loved by physicians and laboratories is not currently used

🤓And what is new?
Can Lipoprotein (a), when – on the slide

❓How to take?
Blood can be donated NOT on an empty stomach
Except in cases of TG> 5, if additional fasting tests are required and when assessing drug reduction in cholesterol

😃Can you have a genetic test?
For CVD risk assessment – NOT recommended
👨🏻‍🔬Can be used for familial hypercholesterolemia

😌These are the main points of laboratory diagnostics of dyslipidemia, more details in FB💚

❓Do you know your cholesterol?


Diarrhea (diarrhea) is frequent, repeated liquid stools. Diarrhea is usually accompanied by pain, rumbling in the abdomen, flatulence, tenesmus. Diarrhea is a symptom of many infectious diseases and inflammatory bowel processes, dysbacteriosis, neurogenic disorders. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disease is important in the prevention of complications. Loss of large amounts of fluid during profuse diarrhea leads to a violation of the water-salt balance and can cause heart and kidney failure. Sometimes it helps against diarrhea:

Diarrhea is a one-time or frequent defecation with stools of a liquid consistency. It is a symptom which signals a disturbance of the absorption of water and electrolytes in the intestines. The normal amount of stool excreted per day by an adult varies between 100 and 300 grams, depending on the characteristics of the diet (the amount of dietary fiber, poorly digested substances, liquids). If intestinal motility is increased, stools may become more frequent and liquefied, but their quantity remains within the normal range. When the amount of liquid in the stool increases to 60-90%, we speak of diarrhea.

A distinction is made between acute diarrhea (lasting no more than 2-3 weeks) and chronic diarrhea. In addition, the concept of chronic diarrhea includes a tendency to periodically abundant stools (more than 300 grams per day). Patients suffering from impaired absorption of various nutrients tend to be polyfecal: a large quantity of stools containing undigested food remains.

Causes of diarrhea
When there is severe intoxication in the intestine, there is excessive secretion of water with sodium ions into its lumen, which helps to thin the stool. Secretory diarrhea develops in intestinal infections (cholera, enteroviruses), taking some drugs and dietary supplements. Osmolar diarrhea occurs in malabsorption syndrome, insufficient digestion of sugars, excessive consumption of osmotically active substances (laxatives, sorbitol, antacids, etc.). Mechanism of diarrhea in such cases is related to an increase in osmotic pressure in the intestinal lumen and fluid diffusion along the osmotic gradient.

A significant factor contributing to the development of diarrhea is a violation of intestinal motility (hypokinetic and hyperkinetic diarrhea) and, consequently, changes in the rate of transit of intestinal contents. Increased motility is promoted by laxatives, magnesium salts. Violations of motor function (weakening and strengthening of peristalsis) take place in the development of irritable bowel syndrome. It is said to be a functional diarrhea.

Inflammation of the intestinal wall causes an exudation of protein, electrolytes and water into the intestinal lumen through damaged mucosa. Exudative diarrhea accompanies enteritis, enterocolitis of different etiologies, intestinal tuberculosis, and acute intestinal infections (salmonellosis, dysentery). It is not uncommon for this type of diarrhea to have blood or pus in the stool.

Diarrhea may be caused by taking medicines: laxatives, antacids containing magnesium salts, some groups of antibiotics (ampicillin, lincomycin, cephalosporins, clindamycin), antiarrhythmic drugs (quindiline, propranolol), foxglove drugs, potassium salts, artificial sugars (sorbitol, mannitol), cholestyramine, chenodeoxycholic acid, sulfonamides, anticoagulants.

OC: advantages and disadvantages

Let’s break down the pros and cons of using combined hormonal contraceptives including

Advantages of OC
OC is the most popular method of contraception in developed countries.
The method is characterized by high contraceptive reliability. With correct and regular intake their effectiveness is 99.7%.
After cessation of taking OCs

fertility is quickly restored.
Modern OCs have practically no effect on body weight and blood pressure.
Also, OCs have some non-contraceptive effects. Among them:

A 40% reduction in endometrial cancer with short-term use and up to 80% with long-term use (>10 years);
Use of oral contraception for 12 years reduces the risk of ovarian cancer by 60%. The protective effect against ovarian cancer persists for 10 years after discontinuation.
Use of OCs reduces the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and colon cancer by 30-40%.
Quite effective in treating acne (if indicated and other treatments have been ineffective).
Eliminate unpleasant symptoms of algodysmenorrhea (painful menstruation).
Once again I remind you OCs are prescribed only by a doctor, these are drugs containing steroid hormones. I am not trying to convince anyone that they are good or bad, these are hormonal drugs that should only be prescribed by a doctor taking into account the indications for taking them, all the benefits for each individual patient and their possible side effects.

Disadvantages of OCs
Our greatest concern is, of course, the risk of developing cancer. First OCs contained 4-5 times more hormones (estrogen and progesterone) in comparison with present low- and micro-dose OCs and had many side effects.

What do we have today?

The use of OCs by women with a family history of breast cancer was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer compared to women who had never used OCs in their lives.
But, in the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, OC use may slightly increase breast cancer risk (WHO, 2004).
Long-term OC use (more than 5 years) with chronic papillomavirus infection may slightly (but not more than 2-fold) increase the risk of developing preinvasive cancer and invasive carcinoma.
When using OCs, smoking is an increased risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially myocardial infarction. Studies have also shown that the risk of myocardial infarction increased with the number of cigarettes smoked in a day. Therefore, OCs are not recommended for use in women who smoke, especially those over the age of 35.
Taking combined oral contraceptives is associated with a small increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis, heart attack, and stroke. The risk is higher in women over the age of 35 who smoke more than 15 cigarettes a day, and in women who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors, such as high cholesterol, arterial hypertension, and diabetes. But the overall risk in the population of taking OCs remains low.

Soft tissue abscess

Amoxicat Capsules, Amoxicat for oral suspension, Amoxicat tablets
Amoxicat Capsules, Amoxicat for oral suspension, Amoxicat tablets

A soft tissue abscess is a cavity located in the muscle or subcutaneous fatty tissue, isolated from the surrounding tissue and filled with purulent content. It is characterized by edema, hyperemia, painful skin and fluctuation symptoms in the affected area. It is accompanied by general somatic changes: headache, hyperthermia, malaise, sleep disorders. Examination includes examination, ultrasound, radiography, diagnostic puncture of the abscess and bacteriological examination of its contents. Once the abscess is formed, it is opened, followed by postoperative drainage and flushing with antiseptic solutions. Amoxicat Capsules, Amoxicat for oral suspension, Amoxicat tablets (chewable) are indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible (ONLY β-lactamase–negative) isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, or Enterococcus faecalis. Infections of the Skin and Skin Structure. 

General information

A soft tissue abscess differs from other purulent inflammatory diseases in the presence of an infiltrative capsule (pyogenic membrane). The capsule limits the abscess from nearby anatomical structures and prevents the spread of the purulent process. However, accumulation of a large amount of purulent exudate, enlargement of the abscess and thinning of its capsule can lead to a breakthrough with the release of purulent contents into the surrounding tissue or intermuscular space and the development of septic inflammation – phlegmon.


Soft tissue abscess is caused by the entry of pus-like microorganisms into the tissue. In about a quarter of cases, the pathology is caused by a staphylococcal infection. Streptococci, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium difficile, and other pathogens may also be causative. A polymicrobial etiology is often observed. In bone tuberculosis, a “cold” abscess caused by mycobacteria may be observed. The main causes of the disease:

Traumatic injuries. Penetration of pus-bearing microorganisms occurs more often in violation of the integrity of the skin as a result of wounds, traumas, microtraumas, burns, frostbites, open fractures.
Remote foci of infection. Soft tissue abscess can occur when microorganisms spread lymphatically and hematogenously from existing pus in the body, such as furunculosis, carbuncle, pyoderma, etc.
Medical manipulation. Infection can occur iatrogenically by injection with an infected needle.
Dissolving fluids. Rarely, aseptic abscesses occur as a result of necrotic fluids (kerosene, gasoline, etc.) entering the tissue.

Risk Factors

According to the observations of specialists in the field of purulent surgery, a favorable background is:

The presence in the body of a focus of chronic infection (sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis);
Long-term gastrointestinal disease (gastroenteritis, enteritis, colitis);
disorders of peripheral circulation (atherosclerosis, varicose veins, post-thrombophlebitic disease);
metabolic disorders (obesity, hypothyroidism, avitaminosis).
Diabetes mellitus with severe angiopathy plays a particularly significant role in the development and progression of purulent process.


Amoxicat Capsules, Amoxicat for oral suspension, Amoxicat tablets
Amoxicat Capsules, Amoxicat for oral suspension, Amoxicat tablets

A soft tissue abscess is characterized by local and systemic symptoms. Local symptoms include soreness, swelling, and redness of the skin above the abscess. Pressure on the affected area causes increased pain. At a superficial location, the local symptomatology is clearly pronounced. Fluctuation symptom appears after a few days, indicating fluid content has accumulated inside the inflammatory focus.

When the abscess is deep, local symptoms are not so noticeable, fluctuation is absent, and changes in the patient’s general condition come to the fore. General somatic signs are nonspecific. Patients notice increased fatigue, recurrent headache, restlessness, sleep disturbances, rise of body temperature, which may reach 39-40° С, accompanied by chills.

Soft tissue abscess treatment

The main method of treatment is surgical. The tactics is determined by the localization, volume and stage of purulent process, the presence or absence of complications. With small superficial abscesses, outpatient observation is possible. Hospitalization is necessary in recurrence, with complications and severe background diseases, detection of anaerobic infection, a high risk of spreading purulent inflammation if the abscess is located on the face, near major vessels and nerves.

Conservative therapy
In the initial stage, conservative measures are recommended: anti-inflammatory means and UHF. Subsequently, drug therapy is used in addition to surgical treatment. Prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics, after receiving the results of the test the scheme is adjusted according to the sensitivity of the pathogen. With generalization of infection it is necessary to carry out massive antibiotic therapy, detoxification, infusion and symptomatic treatment measures.

Surgical treatment
Formed soft tissue abscess is subject to mandatory surgical treatment. Autopsy and drainage is usually performed by a surgeon in the outpatient operating room. Surgical treatment of the abscess is currently performed using open and closed surgery. Closed intervention is performed through a small incision, includes curettage of the walls and aspiration of the abscess contents, use of a double-lumen tube for drainage, active aspiration, and flushing of the cavity after surgery.

Open treatment involves emptying and flushing the abscess with antiseptic after its wide dissection, drainage with wide strips, daily postoperative toiletting of the abscess cavity and dressing. Sutures are not applied. After sanation of the focus and formation of granulation, ointment dressings are applied. The wound shall heal by the secondary tension.

The abscess has been cured, now you can buy new bedroom furniture on this site:


Farmapram (alprazolam) drug study

As numerous data show, including recent years, farmapram (alprazolam) remains a fairly popular and effective tranquilizer. However, many questions require clarification and additional study. In particular, the place of farmapram in complex therapy of mental disorders along with new drugs from other psychopharmacological groups needs to be considered. Questions concerning dosages of alprazolam, possible duration of its use as well as frequency and conditions of addiction formation remain not quite clear.

Farmapram (alprazolam) drug study

Aim of the study: analysis of use of alprazolam in complex therapy of various mental disorders in order to clarify indications for its prescription. The case histories of 124 patients treated as inpatients (58 patients – 46.8%) and outpatients (66 patients – 53.2%) at the Korsakov psychiatric clinic were studied. S.S. Korsakov First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov and who received alprazolam at a certain stage of therapy. All patients underwent a thorough psychiatric and somato-neurological examination with the necessary paraclinical methods to assess the effectiveness of therapy and possible side effects. The patients included 74 women (59.7%) and 50 (40.3%) men aged 26 to 70 years. Length of illness ranged from 2 months to 40 years.

According to the results of ICD-10 evaluation of psychiatric disorders, the patients were distributed as follows: schizophrenia F20 was diagnosed in 24 patients (19.4%), paranoid F20. 0 – in 10 (8.1%), flaccid F21 – in 14 (11.3%); affective disorders F3 – in 46 (37.2%), including depressive episode of varying severity F32 – in 8 (6.5%), recurrent depressive disorder F33 – in 26 (21.0%), bipolar disorder F31 – in 12 (9.7%); organic brain lesions F06 – in 6 (4.8%), of which anxiety organic disorder F06. 4 – in 4 (6,4%), organic personality disorder F07.0 – in 2 (1,6%); psychogenic disorders F4 – in 48 (38,7%), including panic disorder F41.0 in 16 (12,9%), generalized anxiety disorder F41. 1 in 4 (3.2%), obsessive-compulsive disorder F42.2 in 2 (1.6%), and adaptive disorders as depressive F43.21 and anxious-depressive F43.22 in 26 (21.0%).

Farmapram (alprazolam) drug study

All patients received treatment with psychotropic drugs of different pharmacological groups according to the leading psychopathological syndrome. As part of complex therapy, as main or auxiliary agent, all patients received farmapram (alprazolam) in a daily dose from 0.5 to 1.5 mg in 2-3 sittings. About half of the patients – 59 people (47.6%) – were first-time patients. (47.6%) were newly diagnosed with: first-time depressive episode (8), adjustment disorders (26), neurotic anxiety-phobic disorder (14), organic disorders (4), intermittent schizophrenia (5), and paranoid schizophrenia (2). These patients received practically no psychotropic medications, including tranquilizers, prior to admission to the clinic (with the exception of some recommendations from neurologists). The other patients had previously taken various medications, including benzodiazepines, but none of the patients had symptoms of formed drug dependence at the time of admission to the clinic.

When prescribing farmapram (alprazolam), its anxiolytic and antidepressant effects were primarily taken into account. Weakly pronounced sedative, hypnotic, muscle relaxant and amnestic effects, especially in low doses, made it possible to use it as a daytime tranquilizer in outpatients, including working patients.

How to brew and store the obtained infusions?

The proportions for decoctions and infusions are selected, depending on what concentration of the drug is needed and how it will be taken. Alcoholic infusions are stored in a cool, dark place, while decoctions should be made just before taking. Most herbal decoctions and teas are suitable for consumption within 24 hours after they have been brewed, then they lose their beneficial properties. If the decoction of herbs is placed in the refrigerator, then it can be stored for up to 3 or even 4 days. After that, you need to prepare a fresh portion of the product for treatment.
Many herbs must be infused after brewing. This will take about 10-12 hours. During this time, the concentration of nutrients in the liquid will become maximum. It is necessary to place the brewed herbs in a cool, dark place, then, after a predetermined period of time, remove and strain.

How to brew and store the obtained infusions?

Alcoholic herbal infusions are widely used not only for medicinal purposes, but also as an addition to the festive table. Compared to store products, they have many advantages, the main of which is their natural origin. Such means are made by mixing alcohol or strong alcohol, for example, vodka or cognac, with herbs and spices. Alcohol here acts not only as a method of extraction, that is, extracting useful substances from herbs, but also as a preservative. Alcoholic tinctures never become moldy or ferment. Store them in a dark, cool place. Their shelf life can be up to 7-10 years.
If the herbal decoction is taken in sufficiently large doses, sometimes even in glasses, then alcohol tincture is drunk in teaspoons or tablespoons. If it is difficult to take in its pure form, it can be diluted with water, if desired, adding a small amount of honey to improve the taste. Typically, tinctures are taken between meals. You cannot drink alcohol-containing liquid on an empty stomach, even for medicinal purposes.

How to brew and store the obtained infusions?

Like decoctions, tinctures cannot be considered a complete replacement for pharmacological drugs, but in many cases they give a visible healing effect when taken regularly. Caution Herbal medicine should be treated sensibly and without excessive fanaticism. Its effectiveness has been proven, but in case of serious illnesses, you must definitely consult a doctor. And in no case should you self-medicate, since ineptly and improperly used herbal remedies can harm yourself and aggravate the painful condition. Herbal medicine can be the main method of treatment or an adjunct to drug therapy. But, in order to select herbal medicines and determine the method and duration of their intake, as well as the dosage, you need a specialist consultation. It should be understood that you will not be able to diagnose yourself, and therefore choose the right treatment. A doctor’s examination and diagnosis is required. Only then can we talk about the selection of herbal preparations.

Herbal treatment, basic rules

According to statistics, in about 75% of cases, herbal treatment has an effect. The main thing is the correct selection and calculation of the dosage, as well as taking into account the peculiarities of the reception.
For the treatment and prevention of many diseases, natural preparations are very good. Herbal treatment may well speed up the recovery process after surgery or act as adjuncts in the treatment of antibiotics or other pharmacological drugs. Indications for the use of herbal medicine.

Herbal treatment, basic rules

Medicines based on herbal raw materials are especially effective when it is necessary to cure the patient from such diseases: diseases associated with nervous exhaustion or overexertion; insomnia or excessive sleepiness; depression without pathologies, which does not require pharmacological preparations; frequent colds; rheumatism; gastrointestinal diseases. Herbal preparations are good for treating the liver and kidneys. With gallstone disease, in some cases, phytotherapy is sufficient. Scurvy and rickets are also excellently cured with natural, herbal medicines. For certain diseases, herbal preparations act as auxiliary agents. For example, when treating cancer, they can help reduce or even neutralize nausea, which, alas, is a common side effect of chemotherapy. In pregnant women, some herbal preparations reduce the manifestations of early toxicosis and gestosis – late toxicosis. True, in this case, you must first consult with an obstetrician, since not all herbal preparations, being useful for the mother’s body, do not harm the child.

Herbal treatment, basic rules

Herbal preparations are becoming a true salvation for people suffering from VSD – vegetative-vascular dystonia. These are also called meteosensitive. Herbal remedies increase blood pressure, relieve dizziness, a feeling of constriction in the temples, and other negative symptoms.
When treating with herbs, medications act on the body very gently, gradually, so one cannot expect a quick, visible effect from herbal medicine. In addition, all herbs cannot be considered so safe and harmless. Exceeding the dosage or incorrectly combined medicinal components can cause a lot of unpleasant consequences, not to mention their ineffectiveness in terms of getting rid of the disease. It is quite difficult to calculate the dosage in herbal medicine. These are not tablets or syrup, where each serving has the dose of the active ingredient indicated in the instructions. It is important not to overdo it with a portion of natural medicines, since the positive effect depends on this. More is not better. There are also a number of contraindications in natural treatment that need to be taken into account.

Denis Slinkin

Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)

The blood sugar test at the post is also called the blood glucose test at the post. It measures the sugar level after fasting for at least eight hours. Glucose is the main sugar in your bloodstream, and high levels after fasting can indicate diabetes. You can still drink water during your fasting before the test (unless otherwise instructed by your doctor), but you should avoid drinking drinks such as coffee, tea, juice and soda. A health worker will take blood for a vein on your arm, which will be sent to the lab for analysis, says Dr. Slinkin.

After eating, your blood glucose levels usually rise within a few hours as you break down and absorb dietary carbohydrates. In healthy people, the pancreas will produce insulin to move glucose into tissue and out of the bloodstream. In this way, glucose levels will gradually drop after eating and remain low during fasting, explains Mr. Denis.

People with diabetes either don’t have enough insulin to lower blood glucose levels (type 1 diabetes mellitus) or their body can’t effectively use insulin (type 2 diabetes mellitus). When performing blood glucose test on an empty stomach, diabetics will have much higher blood sugar levels than non-diabetics, which can lead to many health problems in the long term.

FBS Denis Slinkin

An on an empty stomach blood sugar test measures blood glucose levels FBS after fasting for at least 8 hours. High blood glucose levels can indicate diabetes.Why do doctors order it. An on an empty stomach blood glucose test is performed for diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. It also helps doctors control diabetes and determine if medications and dietary changes have an effect on the diet. Blood glucose levels on an empty stomach are the lowest, as the effects of recent meals are minimal.

Your blood sugar level FBS on an empty stomach is often checked together with HbA1c (also known as glycated hemoglobin), which is a measure of your blood sugar level over the past three months. The more blood sugar in your blood, the more it will join hemoglobin, increasing your HbA1c level. Taken together, they provide more information than each test individually. For example, even if your blood sugar level is very high at one random point, it may have been mostly low during the last few months (low HbA1c). On the other hand, HBA1c may be higher, but glucose levels are currently lower.

In addition to diabetes, abnormal levels FBS may indicate problems such as insulin resistance, hormonal imbalance, and pancreatic, liver or kidney disease.

Side effects Vidaza

Hematological reactions (71.4%), including thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and leukocytopenia (usually 3-4 degrees of severity); gastrointestinal complications (60.6%), including nausea and vomiting (usually 1-2 degrees of severity) or local reactions at the injection site (77.1%; 1-2 degrees of severity) were the most common undesired effects Dmitry Sazonov of azacitidine treatment.

Febrilic neutropenia (8%) and anemia (2.3%) are also the most frequent (>2%) serious undesired reactions. Other serious adverse reactions included sepsis with neutropenia, pneumonia, thrombocytopenia and bleeding (e.g. intracranial).

The frequency of adverse reactions given below was determined by the following gradations:

  • very often (≥1/10);
  • frequently (≥1/100, <1/10);
  • infrequently (≥1/1000, <1/100);
  • rarely (≥1/10000, <1/1000);
  • very rarely (<1/10000);
  • unknown (impossible to estimate from available data).
Side effects Vidaza

Hematopenia: very often – neutropenia, febril neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia; often – pancytopenia.

The digestive system: very often – diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, anorexia; often – gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhoid bleeding, stomatitis, bleeding gums, dyspepsia.

On the liver and biliary tract side: not often – liver failure*, progressive liver coma.

CNS: very often – dizziness, headache; often – intracranial bleeding, drowsiness.

CNS: often – increase or decrease in BP, hematoma.

Respiratory system: very often – shortness of breath; often – breathlessness during exercise, pain in the larynx and throat; rarely – interstitial lung diseases.

Urinary system: often – haematuria, renal failure, increased creatinine Dmitry Sazonov concentration, rarely – renal-canal acidosis.

Skin and subcutaneous fat: very often – petechiae, itching, rash, ecchymosis; often – purpura, alopecia, erythema, spotted rash.

Musculoskeletal system: very often – arthralgia; often – bone pain, myalgia.

From the visual organ: often – intraocular bleeding, bleeding into the conjunctiva.

Infections: very often – pneumonia, nasopharyngitis, often – sepsis against the background of neutropenia, upper respiratory tract and urinary tract infections, inflammation of subcutaneous tissue, sinusitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, herpes simple.

From the immune system: not often – hypersensitivity reactions.

Metabolic disorders and eating disorders: very often – anorexia; often – hypokalemia; rarely – tumor lysis syndrome.

Psychiatric disorders: often – confusion, anxiety, insomnia.

Local reactions: very often – pain, redness, non-specific reactions at the injection site; often – bleeding, haemorrhage, hematoma, thickening, inflammation, rash, itching, discoloration of skin, nodule formation and painfulness at Dmitry Sazonov the injection site; rarely – tissue necrosis at the injection site.

Others: very often – weakness, fever, chest pain; often – weight loss.